In the year 2009 the Revolt of the Tyrolean villagers against French superiority celebrates its 200th anniversary. Tyrol, the heart of the Alpes, arose against France and Bavaria in 1809. Spearheaded by Andreas Hofer, an innkeeper and cattle dealer from the Val Passiria, the peasant movement has given his superior majesty Napoleon Bonaparte the fits for quite some time.
Some key facts of Tyrolean history shall be introduced below.
A pathway to rebellion…
||Emperor Maximilian I. enacts the „Landlibell“, assuring all Tyroleans to not be forced to fight outside their home territory.
||Andreas Hofer is born in St. Leonhard in Passeier.
||In the War of Coalition, Napoleon spreads his armst o Italy and Austria fort he first time. Hofer serves as a rifleman.
||Austria and Russia are in war with France. As Bavaria allies with France, it is forced to take sides with Napoleon. In return Bavaria is ennobled to Kingdom of Bavaria and is provided with Tyrol as loot.
|1807 to 1809
Bavaria overwhelms Tyrol by new laws and acts of administration. Furthermore Bavaria eliminates the “Landlibell” and gets involved in issues of religion and tradition. Commercial trade flounders and the Tyroleans start to suffer from poverty. Wrath arises.
The Year of the Revolution – 1809
||Andreas Hofer travels to Vienna. Preparation starts.
|April 12th / 13th
||First Battle of Bergisel. The Tyroleans regain power over Innsbruck. Which is not long to last.
|May 25th and 29th
||Second Battle of Bergisel. Bavarians and French have to back out of Tyrol. Hofer becomes Commander in Chief. The Austrian Emperor Franz I. makes the promise to never separate Tyrol from Austria again.
||Once again French and Bavarian troops march into Tyrol.
||Third Battle of Bergisel. Tyrol gains a glorious triumph. Andreas Hofer gets to take over government at the Hofburg at Innsbruck.
||Österreich sieht sich gezwungen mit Frankreich Frieden zu schließen. Im Vertrag von Schönbrunn wird Tyrol wieder an das Königreich Bayern abgetreten. Das Land wird wieder besetzt, die Tyroler können ihr Unglück um das gebrochene Versprechen des Österreichischen Kaisers kaum glauben.
||Fourth Battle of Bergisel. The Tyroleans eventually underlie the Bavarian and French superiority.
||Hofer takes refuge at the Pfandleralm, high up in the mountains. A reward is put by the government on turning him in.
The end of the revolt and the beginning of a new era…
||On January 28th Hofer is captured at the Pfandleralm.
By order of Napoleon himself he is executed in Mantua on February 20th.
||In October Bavaria finally allies with Napoleon’s enemies. It takes sides on Austria in the battle against France.
||Napoleon hast o resign. Tyrol is re-obtained by Austria.